Metabolism

Lifestyle Oncology Learning Academy

Where treatment ends, lifestyle is the new beginning.  Lifestyle Oncology Learning Academy (LOLA) is my multi-faceted sandbox for learning and maintaining an anti-cancer lifestyle through management of the 3M’s: Metabolism, Malnutrition and Mayhem.

What is Cancer Metabolism?

Cancer metabolism refers to the alterations in cellular metabolism pathways that are evident in cancer cells compared with most normal tissue cells”.

I’m beginning to understand cancer metabolism within the context of the micro-environment and I found the topic very interesting since I read ‘How to Starve Cancer‘ (HTSC) by Jane McLelland who survived stage IV terminal cancer 19 years ago through her “spot of bother” action plan. Thank you to Jane for introducing me to this topic. I think the neat thing about this theory, from my perspective, is that I can see a way to possibly mitigate my risks in a way that is more within my control than just accepting watchful waiting. This theory is evolved from the Warburg Effect(1); which has more recently been revisited by Thomas N. Seyfried, Travis Christofferson and Dr. Nasha Winters & Jess Higgins Kelley. Are all of these eminent scientists barking up the wrong tree? It seems unlikely. The current challenge is the tailoring for each cancer metabolic phenotype.

Mapping my Metabolic Phenotype (ER+/PR+ 8/8 HER2-)
Since Jane McLelland invented a ‘Metro Map’ diagram (featured here) to help people model their own cancer type, this complex topic is more communicable to non-specialists. I’ve put the ‘Metro Map’ to the test against my ER+ metabolic phenotype which I found here (an excellent publication, thank you to the authors; citation in footnote(2). I appreciate the phenotype mapping is still an emerging science but I’m happy to look at the research scientists have achieved so far and “have a go”. There are also many other signalling pathways and growth factors mentioned in the ‘HTSC’ book but I’m just looking at metabolism based on the ‘Metro Map’ for the purpose of this experiment.

With permission from Jane McLelland in advance, I have applied the McLelland ‘Metro Map’ to my metabolic phenotype (ER+).  The suggested off-label drugs like metformin and statins or supplements like berberine, for example, to block these fuel lines [pathways] can be found in the ‘HTSC’ book against the McLelland ‘Metro Map’ on page 319.  The Care Oncology Clinic offer a protocol prescribing some of the drugs mentioned: more information can be found here.  Here is research on Neoadjuvant Metforminand breast cancer.  The following research paper explores a link between diabetes and cancer and the use of metformin for DNA repair.

So, here is my ER+ metabolic phenotype: no guarantee of it’s correctness is given or implied based on this being an emerging science but this feels like excellent progress. 

1. Glucose Pathways
Glycolysis + MCT1
– Glut 1 (Glucose Transporter 1)
– Lactate I’ve added this to the list as it is a key driver for glucose utilisation. I targeted lactate with Magnesium supplements. However, subsequent research on supplements found magnesium may increase the risk of breast density and ER+ breast cancer so magnesium should only be ingested through diet until further research fully establishes the risk. Magnesium is essential for the metabolism of Vitamin D. Vitamin D assists the homeostasis of Calcium and Vitamin K2 helps to transport Calcium to the bone and away from soft tissue. (I have a history of fibroadenoma so for me this feels pretty important.) I don’t take calcium supplements as I don’t want excess calcium levels, just healthy levels from plant-based foods. This publication discusses excess calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and breast cancer. If calcium levels drop too low the bone tissue will release calcium back into the system. This publication confirms Metformin may be a therapeutic target for lactate which I have recently starting taking on the COC protocol. The following research paper suggests lactate may be involved in progression and resistancy to therapy. This research paper further confirms new roles discovered in lactate in the tumour micro environment.

PP Pathway (Pentose Phosphate Pathway) although this pathway is mentioned in the model I’ve referred to, it does not appear to be highly expressed in ER+ (Luminal A) tumours according to this publication3  so until I read anything to the contrary, I will not include this pathway for my phenotype.  The Pentose pathway runs in parallel with glycolysis which I’ve already targeted.  I’m of the opinion that targeting the PP Pathway with ER+ breast cancer is dangerous.  DHEA is the popular target for the PP Pathway which interferes with Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors and may increase progression.

2. Fatty Acid Pathways
– FASN/FAS (Acetyl CoA) 
– ACLY  (ATP Citrate Lyase/TCA Cycle)

3. Glutamine Pathways
– GS (Glutaminolysis)
– IGF-14 (not in the ER+ phenotype diagram I’ve used, but I feel it is essential that IGF-1 be targeted for ER+. I’ve read extensively on IGF-1 and I avoid consumption of all foods which may fuel this pathway (all animal products, including dairy).

So that’s a neat little experiment and the book How to Starve Cancer explains everything in context.  It’s a lot of knowledge for a reasonable price and it’s the best cancer book I’ve come across and I’ve read quite a few.  You can join the “Jane McLelland Off Label Drugs for Cancer” facebook group here which is a safe space for discussion.

In addition, the generic pathways which Jane suggests targeting, as a minimum, are listed on p328 of ‘How to Starve Cancer’.  The list includes IGF-1 for all cancers so it is reasonable that I have added it to the list for ER+ breast cancer anyway.  In ‘How to Starve Cancer’ there is information on abnormal cell signalling and growth factors and treatment suggestions for blocking them, with full citation/referencing.  I have focused on the metabolism ‘Metro Map’ as I was stage 3 at diagnosis and will primarily use metabolism for  recurrence prevention with a short-term blast at IBC for good measure, shown below.    For stage IV cancer there are additional suggestions designed to work alongside conventional treatment.  Jane is not suggesting a replacement for conventional medicine…..  ‘Integrated Oncology’ is the aim which I am fully in favour of.

From everything I’ve read so far on cancer metabolism, blocking pathways 1 (glucose) and 2 (fatty acid) above may up-regulate 3 (glutamine) so it’s important to block all three. The more advanced the cancer, the more it switches to more aggressive 3 (glutamine) and beyond this it moves to MMPs and Macropinocytosis (this is explained nicely on page 326 & 327).

Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) has a relatively unknown micro-environment.  This means there is no metabolic phenotype specific to IBC as yet. 

In addition to my ER+ metabolic phenotype, I’m going to run with the following research papers in the meantime under three assumptions which turned out to be four assumptions after I discovered there is another metastatic route in aggressive cancers. This disease has more facets than a diamond! Assumptions:
1. IBC has metastatic(5a) tendencies, transitioning from epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) so I’ve added to the discussion: epithelial E-Cadherin and mesenchymal Fibronectin suppression(5c).
2. IBC has an increased risk of higher levels of EGFR(6b) (full paper here)
3. EMT is not the only metastatic route in aggressive cancers according to this research paper(5b) Another pathway to add to the list for Non-EMT is the p53/p21 pathway.
4. There inflammatory nature may be an auto-immune feature similar to multiple myloma6a and rheumatoid arthritis (I have a long history of respiratory allergies (rhinitis/asthma) so I feel inclined to include autophagy6a2 in the hypothesis for me)

With these assumptions in mind I will be adding the following pathway targets for IBC.  This may be overkill but I’d rather over-prevent than under-prevent.  The list looks more daunting than it is as some of the drugs target multiple pathways and the treatments for my ER+ metabolic phenotype has already covered some of these pathways.  I’ve added page references to the book where I’ve found the relevant pathway/marker in the book, otherwise I’ve referenced a research paper. 

EGFR (page 312/378)
COX2 (page 358)
TAMs/Macrophages (M2) (page 349/350) The significance of macrophages and immunity is discussed in the following research paper6c for all breast cancer types.
MMP-2 (page 346)
MMP-3 (page 346)
MMP-9 (page 346)
Autophagy/Macropinocytosis (page 337)
TGFB (page 345) IBC specific research
Snail1, E-Cadherin promotes CTC clustering (Panax Ginseng)
Fibronectin
VEGF (page 345/381)
Ras/Kras (page 378)
OXPHOS (page 319 ‘Metro Map’)
Th2/IL response (page 381)

Stat3, Notch, NF-κB, Wnt/B-catenin, mTOR (page 308-310 & 369)
This research paper suggests Notch signalling is important in metastases(6d1) early on before progression, developing from the bone marrow/osteoblasts. Further confirmation of this along with associated signalling and markers NF-κB and IL6 in this research paper(6d2)

NF-κB hyperactivation is a common feature in IBC according to this research paper(6d3) and this research paper(6e) suggests metformin inhibits NF-κB activity; a pathway involved in regulating M1/M2 (macrophage) expression. This research paper(6f) also suggest CBD may be a promising therapy for NF-κB signalling events as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines.

The STAT3 pathway has been researched(6f2) in relation to endocrine drug resistance. This study involved a drug developed from a stabilised form of Sulphoraphane (a component of cruciferous vegetables). Further confirmation of IL6/STAT3 involvement in metasteses is demonstrated in this research paper(6f3) which shows the drug ruxolitinib decreases breast cancer invasion in vivo demonstrating the potential for IL6/STAT3 targeted therapies for ER+ breast cancer. Further research(6f4) confirms inhibition of the IL6 signalling pathway as a promising therapeutic target to reduce drug resistance.

p53/p216g & glycolysis (page 378)

CDK4/6: recent studies(6h) have shown positive results for inhibitors of this pathway for metastatic hormone positive bc but in the long term there is a need to overcome drug resistance. The following research paper(6i) suggests blue green algae (spirulina platensis) combined with selenium may inhibit the growth of MCF7 and subsequently CDK4 and CDK6 as well as increasing the level of tumour supressor p53/p21. Further research on microalgae as an anti-cancer agent against multiple targets here(6j)

A recent study suggests decreased levels of GLA and EPA fatty acids(6k) were found in Inflammatory Breast Cancer breast adipose (fat) tissue. To balance any potential deficiency, I take a GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid) supplement which can be found in evening primrose oil, blackcurrant seed oil, starflower/borage seed oil, hemp seed oil, and also in edible hemp seeds, oats, barley and spirulina. I also take an EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) supplement which can be found in algae oil, seaweed, nuts, sunflower seeds. More info here

The following website has more information on inhibitors (blockers) against different targets.

This research paper is excellent for describing the complexity of EMT factors and Metabolism in cancers in general

If you are a researcher you may also be interested in this project:   http://www.emendatherapeutics.com/

Exercise

Within the field of metabolism, exercise is very important for reducing breast cancer recurrence risk. Current thinking suggests it increases blood oxygen levels, burns excess calories (building muscle also increases metabolism) and reduces body fat where oestrogen is stored. Here is an extract from a relevant publication(7) which suggests:

“…at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity at least five days of the week, or 75 minutes of more vigorous exercise, along with two to three weekly strength training sessions, including exercises for major muscle groups. This recommendation has been endorsed by both the Canadian Cancer Society and the American Cancer Society.”

It does feel like a big effort at first but gradually becomes part of everyday life and you don’t have to think about it once it’s committed to autopilot. 

Fasting

Nightly fasting(8) for more than 13 hours has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence in vivo.

BMI

I keep my BMI below 24 as there is increasing evidence that maintaining a BMI below 24 improves recurrence risks. Obesity(9) is associated with poorer outcomes10. The body (adipose) fat stores oestrogen so increased weight means greater oestrogen stores; especially important in ER+ breast cancer. Before my diagnosis I was about a stone heavier, my BMI is now around 21.

Supplements

Supplements I’ve taken are listed at the bottom of this page.

References:

1 The Warburg effect:  How does it benefit Cancer Cells?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4783224/

The Warburg Effect and the Hallmarks of Cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27804847

2 Elia, Ilaria & Schmieder, Roberta & Christen, Stefan & Fendt, Sarah-Maria. (2016). Organ-Specific Cancer Metabolism and Its Potential for Therapy. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 233. 321-353. 10.1007/164_2015_10. 

3 Expression of Pentose Phosphate Pathway-Related Proteins in Breast Cancer
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2018/9369358/

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20472501

5a Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype Is Associated with Clinicopathological Factors That Indicate Aggressive Biological Behavior and Poor Clinical Outcomes in Invasive Breast Cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600690/

5b Aggressiveness of non-EMT breast cancer cells relies on FBXO11 activity
https://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12943-018-0918-6

5c Berberine Suppresses Fibronectin Expression through Inhibition of c-Jun Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer Cells
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880962/

6a Autophagy inhibition enhances isobavachalcone-induced cell death in multiple myeloma cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22824846

6a2 The Therapeutic and Pathogenic Role of Autophagy in Autoimmune Diseases
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080611/

6b EGFR signaling promotes inflammation and cancer stem-like activity in inflammatory breast cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28978083
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5620223/pdf/oncotarget-08-67904.pdf

6c A Single-Cell Atlas of the Tumor and Immune Ecosystem of Human Breast Cancer
https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(19)30267-3

6d1 Notch2 pathway mediates breast cancer cellular dormancy and mobilisation in bone and contributes to haematopoietic stem cell mimicry
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41416-019-0501-y

Notch3 inhibits cell proliferation and tumorigenesis and predicts better prognosis in breast cancer through transactivating PTEN https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-021-03735-3

6d2  Microenvironmental IL1β promotes breast cancer metastatic colonisation in the bone via activation of Wnt signalling
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12807-0

6d3 Distinct molecular phenotype of inflammatory breast cancer compared to non-inflammatory breast cancer using Affymetrix-based genome-wide gene-expression analysis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2360452/

6e Metformin-treated cancer cells modulate macrophage polarization through AMPK-NF-κB signalinghttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5400538/

6f  Cannabidiol prevents LPS‐induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF‐κB‐dependent signaling and glucose consumption
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23738

6f2 Targeting STAT3 signalling using stabilised sulphoraphane (SFX-01) inhibits endocrine resistant stem-like cells in ER positive breast cancer
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41388-020-1335-z

6f3 IL6/STAT3 Signalling Hijaks Estrogen Receptor a Enhancers to Drive Breast Cancer Metastasis https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(20)30311-1

6f4 IL-6: The Link Between Inflammation, Immunity and Breast Cancer. Front. Oncol., 18 July 2022Sec. Breast Cancer
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2022.903800/full

6g Emerging Roles of p53 Family Members in Glucose Metabolism
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c7fe/40a2a2156a9edbf0d473ff5aadbda2394286.pdf

6h  CDK 4/6 Inhibitors in Breast Cancer: Current Controversies and Future Directions
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30806829

6i  Simultaneous Inhibition of Cell-Cycle, Proliferation, Survival, Metastatic Pathways and Induction of Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells by a Phytochemical Super-Cocktail: Genes That Underpin Its Mode of Action
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3842439/

6j  Microalgae in modern cancer therapy: Current knowledge
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332218370318

6k  Low eicosapentaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid levels in breast adipose tissue are associated with inflammatory breast cancer
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960977619304813

Lifestyle modifications for patients with breast cancer to improve prognosis and optimize overall health.http://www.cmaj.ca/content/189/7/E268

8 Prolonged Nightly Fasting and Breast Cancer Prognosis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982776/

9 Diet-induced obesity links to ER positive breast cancer progression via LPA/PKD-1-CD36 signaling-mediated microvascular remodeling.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28186980

10 Triple-negative breast cancer and its association with obesity
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5740844/




Further reading:

Reexamining cancer metabolism: lactate production for carcinogenesis could be the purpose and explanation of the Warburg Effect
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862360/

Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of breast cancer: A Mendelian randomization study https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ijc.33246

Out of Warburg effect: An effective cancer treatment targeting the tumour specific metabolism and disregulated pH.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28122260

https://www.nature.com/subjects/cancer-metabolism

Anti-Cancer Effect of Panax Ginseng and Its Metabolites: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Drug Discovery: https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/processes/processes-09-01344/article_deploy/processes-09-01344-v3.pdf

EMT Factors and metabolic pathways in cancer
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2020.00499/full?utm_source=S-TWT&utm_medium=SNET&utm_campaign=ECO_FONC_XXXXXXXX_auto-dlvrit

Aerobic glycolysis and high level of lactate in cancer metabolism and microenvironment
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352304217300107

Reexamining cancer metabolism: lactate production for carcinogenesis could be the purpose and explanation of the Warburg Effect 
https://academic.oup.com/carcin/article/38/2/119/2709442

A New inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase blocks pentose photphate pathway and suppresses malignant proliferation and metastasis in vivo:
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-018-0635-5

The effect of magnesium supplementation on lactate levels of sportsmen and sedanter.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17063625

Targeting Glutamine Metabolism for Cancer Treatmenthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746034/

Hypercalcemia in metastatic breast cancer unrelated to skeletal metastasis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786403/

Magnesium Supplementation in Vitamin D Deficiency.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28471760

Vitamin D, calcium homeostasis and aging
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5068478/
Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4566462/

Something more to say about calcium homeostasis: the role of vitamin K2 in vascular calcification and osteoporosis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089220

Ketones and lactate increase cancer cell “stemness”, driving recurrence, metastasis and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3117136/

Lactate in the Regulation of Tumor Microenvironment and Therapeutic Approaches
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2019.01143/full

Lactate Beyond A Waste Metabolite: Metabolic Affairs and Signaling in Malignancy
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2020.00231/full?utm_source=S-TWT&utm_medium=SNET&utm_campaign=ECO_FONC_XXXXXXXX_auto-dlvrit

Achieving personalized medicine via metabolo-genomics
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3117136/

Natural anti-clotting foods 
http://files.www.clotconnect.org/patients/resources/brochures/Natural_supplements-Brochure_May_2013.pdf

Berberine Suppresses Fibronectin Expression through Inhibition of c-Jun Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer Cells
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880962/

Blocking Cancer With Combinations of Supplements and Off-Label Drugs
https://integrativeoncology-essentials.com/2019/03/blocking-cancer-with-combinations-of-supplements-and-off-label-drugs/


The Pentose Phosphate Pathway as a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy
https://www.e-sciencecentral.org/articles/SC000027010

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate causes proliferation of estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer cells despite treatment with fulvestrant
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/fullarticle/395314

City of Hope Scientist Explores Genomic Instability as the Key Link Between Diabetes and Cancer
https://www.ajmc.com/focus-of-the-week/city-of-hope-scientist-explores-genomic-instability-as-the-key-link-between-diabetes-and-cancer

Disclaimer: I am not a medical professional. I do not claim that anything which worked for me would work the same for you. This blog is no substitute for the advice of your doctor. Always seek medical advice if you have any concerns. Always check with your consultant before taking any supplements. This blog is my personal journey and a journal of how I coped. I do not take any financial incentives from any products mentioned.


I was on the Care Oncology Clinic (COC) Protocol for 3 years after finishing treatment. On the COC Protocol I took:
Metformin 500mg (prolonged release)
Atorvastatin 40mg (reduced time 20mg after first year)
Mebendazole 100mg (3 months on, one month off to keep liver/bilirubin level normal)

Supplements

I took supplements after finishing treatment. Supplements are not usually recommended by the nutrition or medical community (with the exception of vitamin B12 for vegans, vitamin D during winter and folic acid during pregnancy.

I’ve shared below what I took as I know we all read similar articles and it’s good know what each other is doing. I introduced supplements gradually, roughly one per week, to ensure I could test any reactions to the latest one before introducing another. I realise the number of supplements seems quite excessive but I also realise that cancer uses multiple pathways to grow so my aim was to thwart as many as possible so that any remaining cancer cells would give up and die as they have the wrong environment in which to grow. Tamoxifen may give me some protection but nowhere near 100%. Bear in mind that I had a partial response to chemotherapy and significant local lymph node involvement with a high risk of recurrence. I recommend you search for yourself on any of these ‘supplements + breast cancer + pubmed’ the research is out there. Positive research now can take *at least* 10 years to be proven for NHS standards (if at all, sadly research doesn’t always get the recognition or funding it deserves).

I organised my supplements into pill boxes at the weekend, one for morning and one for afternoon so I don’t have to think about them too much (I bought the biggest pill organiser I could find). There is no way I would open each packet reliably every day. I intend to take these supplements for my first two years after finishing treatment as this is my highest risk period. After 2 years I reviewed them. (I’ve highlighted supplements and drugs which I continue to take 2 years on — some of them I less frequently). Occasionally I take a break from all supplements for a week (not medication unless advised by my consultant, just supplements).

More information on natural supplements can be found here or here.

I check for known herbal interaction updates here:
https://nccih.nih.gov/health/providers/digest/herb-drug
or here:
https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/diagnosis-treatment/symptom-management/integrative-medicine/herbs/search
or here:
http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cancer-in-general/treatment/complementary-alternative-therapies/individual-therapies

I take daily low dose gastro-resistant aspirin (75mg, reducing to half a tablet per day after a year) to counteract the thrombosis risk of Tamoxifen and also Clarityn Loratadine (10mg) anti-histamine to counteract the aches and pains from Tamoxifen. Loratadine is also being researched for anti-metastatic properties in breast cancer. (Always ask your consultant before taking any additional medication and double check interaction information here: https://bnf.nice.org.uk/interaction/ or here: https://www.drugs.com/)

Immune support, amino acids and antioxidant supplements:
(Always check with your consultant before taking supplements and only buy from well known reputable brands –your consultant may be interested but unable to advise so you may have to make your own decision). If you read any published papers, remember “in vitro” means; its been tested in a petri dish (cell cultures) so bio-availability through the digestive system can be lost. “In vivo” means it has been tested on animal/human models so more likely to be promising research. I buy vegan supplements. Most are available on Amazon:

  • Vitamins/minerals: D3, K2, magnesium citrate, B complex (I buy B complex with Folateinstead of folic acid as there have been concerns about folic acid and breast cancer. B12 is very important, especially if you’ve given up eating meat. Niacin (B3) doses above 50mg can cause facial flushing –trust me, I’ve tried this and broke out in a rash to my face, neck, knees and wrists which lasted about an hour. Its harmless and can be reduced by having a large glass of cold water and gets better with prolonged use of Niacin according to this article. I take Niacin in a B Complex in the morning and take a separate supplement of Niacin in the afternoon which keeps each dose below the reaction limits.)
  • Beta glucan & polysaccarides (from mushroom extracts – I buy from Time Health) there is also research that Beta glucans may reduce Tamoxifen resistance. Brewer’s yeast also contains beta glucan and chitin.
  • AHCC/alpha glucan 600mg (from mushroom extracts) – I buy from Time Health
  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid (300mg) milled flaxseed is a natural source of ALA
  • MSM (Methylsulphonylmethane) (500mg) (I take this supplement in the morning as it may interfere with sleep)
  • L-Lysine powder (1/2 teaspoon) once a day (L-Lysine Hydrochloride). After almost choking several times on my enormous L-Lysine tablets I’ve now switched to the powder form to add to drinks. I’ve done lots of research on this amino acid and it’s truly wonderful. It can reduce herpes attacks, can help with calcium absorption, reduce cholestrol and more: see here and here
  • Acidophilus Complex probiotics (includes L-acidophilus, L-rhamnosus and L-casei)
  • Quercetin (1/4 tsp), Amla (1/2 tsp), Bergamot (1/2 tsp) powder added to soya or oat milk drinks. Bergamot is from the same family as grapefruit so I’m cautious with quantity due to intereference with CYP metabolism and don’t have bergamot every day.
  • Lutein
  • Ursolic Acid as Holy Basil supplements (800mg)
  • Seleno Excell

Sulphoraphane has attracted more recent research for its anti-proliferative properties on breast cancer stem cells which can be a long term problem for recurrence. A combination approach is though to be most effective as shown in this research and I’ve added a supplement daily from this source
Spirulina and Microalgae are also being researched for anti-breast cancer activity and I take a supplement. Of course, spirulina powder can be added to a smoothie if you have time.


More research can be read on my “Metabolism” thread if you want more understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

Anti inflammatory supplements:  

I take an omega 3 EPA + DHA supplement in the form of algae oil and GLA in the form of starflower/borage oil. I take twice a week. I also took Kelp supplements (500mg) twice weekly
I took 5-HTP or herbal melatonin at bedtime to improve sleep quality.
I bought my melatonin here (natural alternatives are lemon balm and morello cherries)
(valerian *may* not be taken with anti-oestrogen medications, however, this research is being challenged) More encouraging research on valerian here